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  • 1. El Intercambio de Bienes entre Egipto y Asia Anterior Desde el reinado de Tuthmosis III hasta el de Akhenaton Graciela Gestoso Singer Ancient Near East Monographs-Monografas sobre el Antiguo Cercano Oriente Society of Biblical Literature Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente UCA Volumen 2 - 2008

2. Society of Biblical Literature Universidad Catlica Argentina Facultad de Filosofa y Letras Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente Bob Buller Nstor A. Corona SBL Editorial Director Decano Benjamin G. Wright, III Miguel ngel De Marco Chair, SBL Research and Director del Departamento de Publications Committee Historia 3. ANCIENT NEAR EAST MONOGRAPHS MONOGRAFAS SOBRE EL ANTIGUO CERCANO ORIENTE General Editors/Editores Generales Ehud Ben Zvi University of Alberta Roxana Flammini Universidad Catlica Argentina Editorial Board/Comit Editorial Marcelo Campagno Universidad de Buenos Aires, CONICET Michael Floyd Centro de Estudios Teolgicos, Santo Domingo Jos M. Galn Director de la Misin Espaola-Egipcia en Dra Abu el-Naga, Luxor Erhard Gerstenberger Philipps Universitt-Marburg Steven Holloway American Theological Library Association, Chicago Alan Lenzi University of the Pacific Santiago Rostom Maderna Universidad Catlica Argentina Martti Nissinen University of Helsinki Juan Manuel Tebes Universidad Catlica Argentina, Universidad de Buenos Aires 4. El Intercambio de Bienes entre Egipto y Asia Anterior Desde el reinado de Tuthmosis III hasta el de Akhenaton Graciela Gestoso Singer Ancient Near East Monographs Monografas sobre el Antiguo Cercano Oriente Society of Biblical Literature Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente (UCA) Volumen 2 - 2008 5. Gestoso Singer, Graciela El intercambio de bienes entre Egipto y Asia Anterior desde el reinado de Tuthmosis III hasta el de Akhenaton/ Graciela Gestoso Singer. Ancient Near East Monographs Monografas sobre el Antiguo Cercano Oriente, volumen 2. Segunda Edicin. Buenos Aires: Society of Biblical Literature - Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente, Universidad Catlica Argentina, 2008. 244 pp. ISBN 978-987-20606-4-0 1. Arqueologa 2. Historia Antigua de Oriente I. Ttulo CDD 932 Fotografa de tapa: Mar Mediterrneo NASA's "Blue Marble: Next Generation" project: http://www.reference.aol.com/space/earthphotos Society of Biblical Literature The Luce Center 825 Houston Mill Road Atlanta, GA 30329 United States of America aspx.ANEmonographs_books/publications/org.site-sbl.www://http org.site-sbl@sblexec:Direccin electrnica Telfono: 404-727-3100 Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente Facultad de Filosofa y Letras. Departamento de Historia Universidad Catlica Argentina Av. Alicia Moreau de Justo 1500 PB Edificio San Alberto Magno (C1107AFD) Buenos Aires Argentina oceha/ar.edu.uca.www://http ar.com.yahoo@uca_cehao:Direccin electrnica Telfono: (54-11) 4349-0200 ext. 1189 Hecho el depsito que marca la Ley 11.723 Graciela Gestoso Singer Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente, UCA ISSN 1851-8761 ISBN 978-987-20606-4-0 6. ndice Abstract..11 I. Introduccin....14 II. Planteos tericos sobre el intercambio de bienes entre Egipto y Asia Anterior desde el reinado de Tuthmosis III hasta el de Akhenaton ....... 16 1.Modelos tericos de la historiografa del Cercano Oriente sobre el intercambio de bienes 2.Formas de intercambio 3.Formas de valuacin 4.Niveles de intercambio 5.El intercambio de mujeres 6.Lxico e ideologas 7.La propaganda en la diplomacia y el intercambio de bienes 8.Conclusiones III. El intercambio de bienes entre Egipto y Asia Anterior desde el reinado de Tuthmosis III hasta el de Akhenaton........ 46 1.Estructuras poltico-econmicas en el Levante 2. Chipre 2.1.Los sistemas polticos 2.2.Las rutas del intercambio 2.3.Los tipos de bienes intercambiados 2.4.La temporalidad de los intercambios 2.5.Las formas del intercambio 2.6. Conclusiones 3.Siria-Palestina 3.1.Los sistemas polticos 3.2.Las rutas del intercambio 3.3.Los tipos de bienes intercambiados 3.4.La temporalidad de los intercambios 3.5.Las formas del intercambio 3.6. Conclusiones 4.Mesopotamia 4.1.Los sistemas polticos 4.2.Las rutas del intercambio 4.3.Los tipos de bienes intercambiados 7. 4.4.La temporalidad de los intercambios 4.5.Las formas del intercambio 4.6. Conclusiones 5.Hatti 5.1.Los sistemas polticos 5.2.Las rutas del intercambio 5.3.Los tipos de bienes intercambiados 5.4.La temporalidad de los intercambios 5.5.Las formas del intercambio 5.6. Conclusiones IV. Conclusiones generales.....152 Cuadros Cronolgicos.. ..... 157 Cuadros.. .159 Lista de mapas..... . 164 Mapas..........165 Glosario.......175 Bibliografa......189 Abreviaturas. ...239 8. A mis padres Jos () y Nelly 9. Agradecimientos Deseo agradecer a la Dra. Alicia Daneri Rodrigo (Universidad de Buenos Aires), directora del Trabajo de Tesis de Doctorado (presentado y defendido en la Universidad Catlica Argentina, diciembre de 2005), por el apoyo incondicional en mi formacin acadmica; a la Dra. Roxana Flammini (Universidad Catlica Argentina); al Dr. Jos Manuel Galn (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas, Madrid); a los Profs. A. Bernard Knapp (Universidad de Glasgow); Eric Cline (Universidad G. Washington); Itamar Singer, Moshe Kochavi, Shlomo Bunimovitz y Deborah Sweeney (Universidad de Tel Aviv); Dr. Y. Mizrachi (Universidad de Haifa); Dr. Gerald Klingbeil (Universidad de Stellenbosch, Sudfrica; Editor Davar-Logos) por el asesoramiento bibliogrfico brindado; a la Dra. Perla Fuscaldo (Universidad de Buenos Aires), Prof. Pau Figueras (Universidad Ben Gurion del Neguev, Israel), Amir Gorzalczany (Servicio de Antigedades de Israel), Dr. Alejandro F. Botta (Southern Methodist University, Texas, EEUU), Dr. Marcelo Campagno (Universidad de Buenos Aires), y Asesores de la Real Academia Espaola (Madrid) por la lectura del manuscrito original y las sugerencias realizadas. Mi eterna gratitud a las autoridades de la Universidad Catlica Argentina y a las del Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente, por brindarme la posibilidad de publicar este trabajo. Finalmente, agradezco a mi esposo Itamar y a mi madre Nelly por el apoyo brindado durante la elaboracin del trabajo de tesis. 10. EL INTERCAMBIO DE BIENES ENTRE EGIPTO Y ASIA ANTERIOR 11 Abstract This study investigates the forms of exchange of goods in the second half of the XVIIIth Egyptian Dynasty (Thutmose III to Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten) between Egypt and Western Asia, including Hatti, Mittanni, Babylon, Assyria, Alashiya and Canaan. Its main aims are: a) to determine the role of the exchange of goods in the reorganization of the Egyptian state from Thutmose III on; b) to discern the innovations implemented in the exchanges between Egypt and the northern states during the reigns of Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV; c) to interpret the messages sent by the great kings with regard to the exchange of goods within the context of the ideology of each region; d) to determine the extent of economical, political, social and ideological relations within the framework of the circulation of goods. The politico-economic structures in the Levant During the 15th -14th centuries BCE, there were two types of politico-economic structures that affected the circuits of exchange between Egypt and Western Asia "imperialistic" and "independent". Recent archeological finds in the eastern Mediterranean, from Sicily to the Levant, have revealed the various networks of exchange. Furthermore, the philological evidence found in Egyptian, Akkadian, Ugaritic and Hittite written sources allow for the classification of the various types of commercial relationships as well as provide insight into other aspects of the trading process. In their contacts with enclaves (e.g. Ugarit) and commercial centers (e.g. Alashiya), the great powers usually obtained goods by regulated exchange dictated by economic interests. In their diplomatic contacts, the great kings regulated their interactions in a system of politically motivated exchanges of mutual gifts. Along the Levantine corridor, Mittanni, Egypt and Hatti successively applied an imperialist policy of tribute collecting. During the 15th century BCE, the "imperialistic structures" first Mittanni and then Egypt relied on "independent" commercial hubs (Alashiya) and states (Ugarit), as well as on "controlled" Levantine ports (Byblos, Sidon and Tyre) in order to obtain the necessary materials they needed - wood, metals, and prestige goods. The main center in most of these transactions was Alashiya, an important commercial and strategic hub. During the 14th century BCE important changes occurred in the politico- economic structures of the Levant. The complex diplomatic and economic contacts included political alliances and the exchange of gifts between the great kings through an intricate chain of messenger-merchants who traveled between the various courts. These contacts established a balance of power in the Levant and new "spheres of interstate interaction" based on an exchange of metals, grain, prestige goods and pack-animals. During the reigns of Thutmose IV and Amenhotep III, Ugarit formed part of the Egyptian "sphere of influence" (according to EA 45-49) and obtained certain economic advantages related to the control of the exchange of metals and pack-animals. For Egypt, the control of the enclave of Ugarit, which now became the main hub of exchanges, guaranteed the income of prestige goods (such as unguents and perfumed oils) from the Aegean world and Cyprus and of raw materials (such as silver, copper and wood) from Anatolia, Cyprus and the Syrian coast. The various networks of exchange included: Egypt-Ugarit-Ura; Babylon- Damascus-Ugarit-Tyre or Byblos, Hatti-Carchemish-Ugarit, Alashiya-Ugarit-Tel Nami 11. GRACIELA GESTOSO SINGER12 and Egypt-Ashkelon-Akko-Byblos-Ugarit. Some port cities, such as Minet el-Beida, Sumur, Byblos, Sidon, and Tyre acquired greater prominence in the exch