Egipto

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<ul><li> 1. El Intercambio de Bienes entre Egipto y Asia Anterior Desde el reinado de Tuthmosis III hasta el de Akhenaton Graciela Gestoso Singer Ancient Near East Monographs-Monografas sobre el Antiguo Cercano Oriente Society of Biblical Literature Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente UCA Volumen 2 - 2008 </li></ul><p> 2. Society of Biblical Literature Universidad Catlica Argentina Facultad de Filosofa y Letras Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente Bob Buller Nstor A. Corona SBL Editorial Director Decano Benjamin G. Wright, III Miguel ngel De Marco Chair, SBL Research and Director del Departamento de Publications Committee Historia 3. ANCIENT NEAR EAST MONOGRAPHS MONOGRAFAS SOBRE EL ANTIGUO CERCANO ORIENTE General Editors/Editores Generales Ehud Ben Zvi University of Alberta Roxana Flammini Universidad Catlica Argentina Editorial Board/Comit Editorial Marcelo Campagno Universidad de Buenos Aires, CONICET Michael Floyd Centro de Estudios Teolgicos, Santo Domingo Jos M. Galn Director de la Misin Espaola-Egipcia en Dra Abu el-Naga, Luxor Erhard Gerstenberger Philipps Universitt-Marburg Steven Holloway American Theological Library Association, Chicago Alan Lenzi University of the Pacific Santiago Rostom Maderna Universidad Catlica Argentina Martti Nissinen University of Helsinki Juan Manuel Tebes Universidad Catlica Argentina, Universidad de Buenos Aires 4. El Intercambio de Bienes entre Egipto y Asia Anterior Desde el reinado de Tuthmosis III hasta el de Akhenaton Graciela Gestoso Singer Ancient Near East Monographs Monografas sobre el Antiguo Cercano Oriente Society of Biblical Literature Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente (UCA) Volumen 2 - 2008 5. Gestoso Singer, Graciela El intercambio de bienes entre Egipto y Asia Anterior desde el reinado de Tuthmosis III hasta el de Akhenaton/ Graciela Gestoso Singer. Ancient Near East Monographs Monografas sobre el Antiguo Cercano Oriente, volumen 2. Segunda Edicin. Buenos Aires: Society of Biblical Literature - Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente, Universidad Catlica Argentina, 2008. 244 pp. ISBN 978-987-20606-4-0 1. Arqueologa 2. Historia Antigua de Oriente I. Ttulo CDD 932 Fotografa de tapa: Mar Mediterrneo NASA's "Blue Marble: Next Generation" project: http://www.reference.aol.com/space/earthphotos Society of Biblical Literature The Luce Center 825 Houston Mill Road Atlanta, GA 30329 United States of America aspx.ANEmonographs_books/publications/org.site-sbl.www://http org.site-sbl@sblexec:Direccin electrnica Telfono: 404-727-3100 Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente Facultad de Filosofa y Letras. Departamento de Historia Universidad Catlica Argentina Av. Alicia Moreau de Justo 1500 PB Edificio San Alberto Magno (C1107AFD) Buenos Aires Argentina oceha/ar.edu.uca.www://http ar.com.yahoo@uca_cehao:Direccin electrnica Telfono: (54-11) 4349-0200 ext. 1189 Hecho el depsito que marca la Ley 11.723 Graciela Gestoso Singer Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente, UCA ISSN 1851-8761 ISBN 978-987-20606-4-0 6. ndice Abstract..11 I. Introduccin....14 II. Planteos tericos sobre el intercambio de bienes entre Egipto y Asia Anterior desde el reinado de Tuthmosis III hasta el de Akhenaton ....... 16 1.Modelos tericos de la historiografa del Cercano Oriente sobre el intercambio de bienes 2.Formas de intercambio 3.Formas de valuacin 4.Niveles de intercambio 5.El intercambio de mujeres 6.Lxico e ideologas 7.La propaganda en la diplomacia y el intercambio de bienes 8.Conclusiones III. El intercambio de bienes entre Egipto y Asia Anterior desde el reinado de Tuthmosis III hasta el de Akhenaton........ 46 1.Estructuras poltico-econmicas en el Levante 2. Chipre 2.1.Los sistemas polticos 2.2.Las rutas del intercambio 2.3.Los tipos de bienes intercambiados 2.4.La temporalidad de los intercambios 2.5.Las formas del intercambio 2.6. Conclusiones 3.Siria-Palestina 3.1.Los sistemas polticos 3.2.Las rutas del intercambio 3.3.Los tipos de bienes intercambiados 3.4.La temporalidad de los intercambios 3.5.Las formas del intercambio 3.6. Conclusiones 4.Mesopotamia 4.1.Los sistemas polticos 4.2.Las rutas del intercambio 4.3.Los tipos de bienes intercambiados 7. 4.4.La temporalidad de los intercambios 4.5.Las formas del intercambio 4.6. Conclusiones 5.Hatti 5.1.Los sistemas polticos 5.2.Las rutas del intercambio 5.3.Los tipos de bienes intercambiados 5.4.La temporalidad de los intercambios 5.5.Las formas del intercambio 5.6. Conclusiones IV. Conclusiones generales.....152 Cuadros Cronolgicos.. ..... 157 Cuadros.. .159 Lista de mapas..... . 164 Mapas..........165 Glosario.......175 Bibliografa......189 Abreviaturas. ...239 8. A mis padres Jos () y Nelly 9. Agradecimientos Deseo agradecer a la Dra. Alicia Daneri Rodrigo (Universidad de Buenos Aires), directora del Trabajo de Tesis de Doctorado (presentado y defendido en la Universidad Catlica Argentina, diciembre de 2005), por el apoyo incondicional en mi formacin acadmica; a la Dra. Roxana Flammini (Universidad Catlica Argentina); al Dr. Jos Manuel Galn (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas, Madrid); a los Profs. A. Bernard Knapp (Universidad de Glasgow); Eric Cline (Universidad G. Washington); Itamar Singer, Moshe Kochavi, Shlomo Bunimovitz y Deborah Sweeney (Universidad de Tel Aviv); Dr. Y. Mizrachi (Universidad de Haifa); Dr. Gerald Klingbeil (Universidad de Stellenbosch, Sudfrica; Editor Davar-Logos) por el asesoramiento bibliogrfico brindado; a la Dra. Perla Fuscaldo (Universidad de Buenos Aires), Prof. Pau Figueras (Universidad Ben Gurion del Neguev, Israel), Amir Gorzalczany (Servicio de Antigedades de Israel), Dr. Alejandro F. Botta (Southern Methodist University, Texas, EEUU), Dr. Marcelo Campagno (Universidad de Buenos Aires), y Asesores de la Real Academia Espaola (Madrid) por la lectura del manuscrito original y las sugerencias realizadas. Mi eterna gratitud a las autoridades de la Universidad Catlica Argentina y a las del Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente, por brindarme la posibilidad de publicar este trabajo. Finalmente, agradezco a mi esposo Itamar y a mi madre Nelly por el apoyo brindado durante la elaboracin del trabajo de tesis. 10. EL INTERCAMBIO DE BIENES ENTRE EGIPTO Y ASIA ANTERIOR 11 Abstract This study investigates the forms of exchange of goods in the second half of the XVIIIth Egyptian Dynasty (Thutmose III to Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten) between Egypt and Western Asia, including Hatti, Mittanni, Babylon, Assyria, Alashiya and Canaan. Its main aims are: a) to determine the role of the exchange of goods in the reorganization of the Egyptian state from Thutmose III on; b) to discern the innovations implemented in the exchanges between Egypt and the northern states during the reigns of Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV; c) to interpret the messages sent by the great kings with regard to the exchange of goods within the context of the ideology of each region; d) to determine the extent of economical, political, social and ideological relations within the framework of the circulation of goods. The politico-economic structures in the Levant During the 15th -14th centuries BCE, there were two types of politico-economic structures that affected the circuits of exchange between Egypt and Western Asia "imperialistic" and "independent". Recent archeological finds in the eastern Mediterranean, from Sicily to the Levant, have revealed the various networks of exchange. Furthermore, the philological evidence found in Egyptian, Akkadian, Ugaritic and Hittite written sources allow for the classification of the various types of commercial relationships as well as provide insight into other aspects of the trading process. In their contacts with enclaves (e.g. Ugarit) and commercial centers (e.g. Alashiya), the great powers usually obtained goods by regulated exchange dictated by economic interests. In their diplomatic contacts, the great kings regulated their interactions in a system of politically motivated exchanges of mutual gifts. Along the Levantine corridor, Mittanni, Egypt and Hatti successively applied an imperialist policy of tribute collecting. During the 15th century BCE, the "imperialistic structures" first Mittanni and then Egypt relied on "independent" commercial hubs (Alashiya) and states (Ugarit), as well as on "controlled" Levantine ports (Byblos, Sidon and Tyre) in order to obtain the necessary materials they needed - wood, metals, and prestige goods. The main center in most of these transactions was Alashiya, an important commercial and strategic hub. During the 14th century BCE important changes occurred in the politico- economic structures of the Levant. The complex diplomatic and economic contacts included political alliances and the exchange of gifts between the great kings through an intricate chain of messenger-merchants who traveled between the various courts. These contacts established a balance of power in the Levant and new "spheres of interstate interaction" based on an exchange of metals, grain, prestige goods and pack-animals. During the reigns of Thutmose IV and Amenhotep III, Ugarit formed part of the Egyptian "sphere of influence" (according to EA 45-49) and obtained certain economic advantages related to the control of the exchange of metals and pack-animals. For Egypt, the control of the enclave of Ugarit, which now became the main hub of exchanges, guaranteed the income of prestige goods (such as unguents and perfumed oils) from the Aegean world and Cyprus and of raw materials (such as silver, copper and wood) from Anatolia, Cyprus and the Syrian coast. The various networks of exchange included: Egypt-Ugarit-Ura; Babylon- Damascus-Ugarit-Tyre or Byblos, Hatti-Carchemish-Ugarit, Alashiya-Ugarit-Tel Nami 11. GRACIELA GESTOSO SINGER12 and Egypt-Ashkelon-Akko-Byblos-Ugarit. Some port cities, such as Minet el-Beida, Sumur, Byblos, Sidon, and Tyre acquired greater prominence in the exchange of goods by virtue of their crucial strategic role for the main powers. Merchants of Ura, Byblos, Sidon, Akko and Ashkelon extended their circuits of activities and temporarily resided in other port towns (such as Minet el-Beida in the kingdom of Ugarit). Their transactions were regulated by the respective imperial powers, Hatti or Egypt. In the middle of the 14th century BCE Suppiluliuma took over northern Syria, and a new competitive division developed between the Hittite and the Egyptian spheres of influence. According to the Amarna letters and other sources, alternative routes of exchange emerged, such as via Cyprus and southern Levantine ports, in order to avoid the areas of conflict in inner-Syria. As a result of belligerent actions such as the Hittite attack on Amka, Ugarit and Amurru lost their economic advantages for the Egyptians as they came under Hittite control. Their economic role was now replaced by Ashkelon, Ashdod, Tell Nami, Dor and Byblos, which remained under Egyptian control. In Alashiya, the ports of Enkomi, Hala Sultan Tekke and Kalavasos were frequented by both Egyptian and Hittite ships. In addition, southwestern Anatolia entered more and more into the orbit of eastern Mediterranean exchanges. The forms of exchange An analysis of the forms of exchange reveals some basic differences between the age of Thutmose III and that of Akhenaten. This study investigates the interstate exchange of this period as a complex economical, social and political phenomenon. During the reign of Thutmose III, Egypt architected a structure of economic administration which enabled it to control the Levantine corridor, which was necessary for the passage of its armies, goods and messengers. Throughout the 15th century BCE, there was a tendency towards the concentration of goods among the great powers - Mittanni, Egypt and Hatti who competed over the control of the Syro-Palestinian realm and its commercial routes. In this period, the Egyptian state obtained its goods and raw materials mainly through the capture of booty, the raising of tribute and the receipt of "obligatory" gifts. During the reigns of Amenhotep III and Akhenaten the exchange forms became more diverse. The diplomatic contacts and transactions became more pronounced, as exemplified by an increase in "marriage alliances" (with Mittanni, Babylon and Arzawa) and by the large volume of exchanged "royal gifts" (with Mittanni, Babylon, Assyria, Hatti and Alashiya). The Egyptian state avoided the effective control of large territories, concentrating instead on more limited, strategically and economically important zones, such as the fertile area around Sumur and the valley of Jezreel (EA 60; 248; 365). Also, the exchange of prestige goods between Egypt, Ugarit, Alashiya and the Aegean multiplied, judging by the amount of Cypriote and Mycenaean ceramics discovered throughout the Levant, deriving from this period. The dominant forms of exchange during the Amarna Period were: 1) The exchange of gifts between great kings united by bonds of "brotherhood" and friendship, on the occasion of a new coronation, a jubilee or an expanded political alliance. 2) The exchange of women along with the gifts of salutation, wedding and the dowry. Contrary to the "tributary marriages" (Thutmose III) or marriages by political pressure (Thutmose IV), the Amarna Age introduced "parithetic" diplomatic marriages, arranged by kings of the same political status. 3) Complex interstate transactions operated by royal merchants. 12. EL INTERCAMBIO DE BIENES ENTRE EGIPTO Y ASIA ANTERIOR 13 The role of the exchange of goods in the reorganization of the Egyptian state The exchange of goods contributed considerably to the reorganization of the Egyptian state on both a regional and interstate level. The maintenance of the socio- economic system depended considerably on the income of raw materials and prestige goods which were scarce or lacking altogether in Egypt (such as wood, resins, silver and precious stones). Since the majority of these goods entered Egypt through the Levantine corridor, the state implemented diverse control mechanisms and techniques of domination. In the age of Thutmose III and his immediate successors, the Egyptian state applied mainly coercive methods such as the sacking of fields and the extraction of tribute and corvee in its Canaanite dependencies, while towards Mittanni they employed an intimidation policy (e.g. sacking and requiring "obligatory gifts"). In their dealings with other foreign states (Babylon, Hatti, Alashiya) more peaceful methods were applied (gifts and regulated exchange). During the Amarna Period, there is a general "warming up" of diplomatic ties to a new age of "brotherhood" between Egypt and its peer powers. The use of propaganda in exchange relations A change in the form of the royal propaganda is noticeable in the 14th century BCE. Whereas in the reigns of Thutmose III and his immediate successors the official inscriptions underscore the Pharaoh's...</p>