tiempos verbales en inglés

  • Published on
    18-Jul-2016

  • View
    21

  • Download
    2

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

todos los tiempos verbales, explicacin y ejemplo

Transcript

TO BE: PRESENT

TO BE: PRESENT SIMPLE*Se traduce como ser o estar en presente.

Am ( I ) / Is (He She It) / Are (You We They)

AFIRM.: Suj + am-is-are + complemento.

NEG.: Suj + am-is-are + not + complem.

( m not/ isnt/ arent)

INT.: Yes No Question: Am-Is-Are + suj + complem?

Rta.: Yes, suj. + am-is-are

No, suj. + am not-isnt-arent

INT.: Wh- Question: Wh- word + am-is-are + suj + compl?

Rta. Completa (estructura afirmativa)

TO BE: PAST SIMPLE*Se traduce como ser o estar en pasado.

Was ( I He She It) / Were (You We They)

AFIRM.: Suj + was-were + complemento.

NEG.: Suj + was-were + not + complem.

(wasnt/ werent)

INT.: Yes No Question: Was-Were + suj + complem?

Rta.: Yes, suj. + was-were.

No, suj. + wasnt-werent.

INT.: Wh- Question: Wh- word + was-were + suj + compl?

Rta. Completa (estructura afirmativa)

PRESENT SIMPLE:

*Acciones habituales o rutinas. (E.g. I often visit friends)

*Verdades permanents (E.g. Gases expand when heated)

*Acciones de realizacin ms corta (Slo contrastado con el Pres. Cont.)

Aux. Do (I You We They) Los auxiliares se usan

Does (He She It) SLO en Neg. e Int.

acompaados de un

verbo en infinitivo.

AFIRM.: Suj + verbo en presente + complemento.

Infinit. Agrega -s/-es

(I-You- (He-She-It)

We-They)

NEG.: Suj + do-does + not + verbo infinitivo + complem.

(dont /doesnt)

INT.: Yes No Question:

Do-Does + suj + verbo infin. + complem?

Rta.: Yes, suj. + do-does.

No, suj. + dont-doesnt

INT.: Wh- Question:

Wh- word + do-does + suj + verbo infin + compl?

Rta. Completa (estructura afirmativa)

PRESENT CONTINUOUS:

*Acciones en progreso al momento de hablar.

*Situaciones temporales.(E.g.What are you doing these days? Im studying English at New York University)

*Acciones ms prolongadas(Contrastado con Pres.Simpl.)

*Acciones planificadas a corto plazo (uso futuro) (E.g. Were spending next winter in Australia)

*Acciones repetitivas (E.g. Shes always helping people)

*Futuro inmediato (E.g. Im having a party tonight)

Aux. Am ( I )

Is (He-She-It) + verbo principal con -ing Are (You-We-They)

AFIRM.: Suj + am-is-are + verbo con -ing + complem.

NEG.: Suj + am-is-are + not + verbo con -ing + complem.

( m not/ isnt/ arent)

INT.: Yes No Question:

Am-Is-Are + suj + verbo con -ing + complem?

Rta.: Yes, suj. + am-is-are

No, suj. + am not-isnt-arent

INT.: Wh- Question:

Wh- word + am-is-are + suj + verbo con -ing + complem?

Rta. Completa (estructura afirmativa)

PAST SIMPLE:

*Acciones habituales o rutinas en el pasado. (E.g. I visited my grandparents on weekends when I was a child)

*Acciones concluidas (E.g. I studied all day yesterday.)

*Acciones cortas (Slo contrastado con el Pas. Cont.) (E.g.We were having dinner when the phone rang.)

Aux. Did (I-You- He-She-It -We-They) El auxiliar se usa SLO en Neg. e Int. acompaados de un verbo en infinitivo.

AFIRM.: Suj + verbo en pasado + complemento.

Regular Irregular

Agregan 2 columna

-d / -ed

NEG.: Suj + did + not + verbo infinitivo + complem.

(didnt)

INT.: Yes No Question:

Did + suj + verbo infin. + complem?

Rta.: Yes, suj. + did.

No, suj. + didnt

INT.: Wh- Question:

Wh- word + did + suj + verbo infin + compl?

Rta. Completa (estructura afirmativa)

PAST CONTINUOUS:

*Acciones en progreso en el pasado.

*Acciones ms prolongadas (Slo contrastado con el Pas. Simple.) (E.g. We were having dinner when the phone rang)

*Acciones paralelas (E.g. While I was working, my wife was cooking dinner.)

*Acciones repetitivas (E.g. Roger was always making mistakes)

Aux. Was ( I-He-She-It) + verbo principal con -ing Were (You-We-They)

AFIRM.: Suj + was-were + verbo con -ing + complem.

NEG.: Suj + was-were + not + verbo con -ing + complem.

( wasnt/ werent)

INT.: Yes No Question:

Was-Were + suj + verbo con -ing + complem?

Rta.: Yes, suj. + was-were

No, suj. + wasnt-werent

INT.: Wh- Question:

Wh- word + was-were + suj + verbo con -ing + complem?

Rta. Completa (estructura afirmativa)

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE:

*Acciones comenzadas en el pasado y que continan hasta el presente.

*Acciones ocurridas en algn momento NO ESPECFICO del pasado y que mantienen alguna relacin con el presente. (Experiencias)

*Expresa acciones de realizacin corta. (E.g. find, start, buy, lose, stop.)

Aux. Have ( I- You-We-They )

Has (He-She-It) + verbo principal en

pasado participioAFIRM.: Suj + have-has + verbo pas. part. + complem.

Regular Irregular

Agregan 3columna

-d / -ed

NEG.: Suj + have-has + not + verbo pas. part. + complem.

(havent / hasnt)

INT.: Yes No Question:

Have-Has + suj + verbo pas. part. + complem.?

Rta.: Yes, suj. + have-has.

No, suj. + havent-hasnt

INT.: Wh- Question:

Wh- word + have-has + suj + verbo pas. part. +complem?

Rta. Completa (estructura afirmativa)

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS:

*Acciones comenzadas en el pasado y que continan hasta el presente.

*Acciones o eventos que tienen sus resultados en el presente. (Causa Consecuencia)

*Expresa acciones de realizacin prolongada. (E.g. work, play, learn, study, wait)

Aux. *Have

(I-You-We-They) + been + verbo principal con -ing*Has

(He-She-It)

AFIRM.: Suj + have-has + been + verbo -ing + complem.

NEG.: Suj + have-has + not + been +verbo -ing+compl.

(havent / hasnt)

INT.: Yes No Question:

Have-Has + suj + been + verbo -ing + complem.?

Rta.: Yes, suj. + have-has.

No, suj. + havent-hasnt

INT.: Wh- Question:

Wh- word + have-has + suj + been + verbo ing + compl?

Rta. Completa (estructura afirmativa)

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE:

*Acciones que ocurrieron en un momento del pasado, ANTES que otra accin tambin ocurrida en el pasado.

E.g. When I got home, John had cooked dinner.

Action 2 Action 1

Aux. Had (todas las personas) + verbo en pas. participioAFIRM.: Suj + had + verbo pas. part. + complem.

Regular Irregular

Agregan 3columna

-d / -ed

NEG.: Suj + had + not + verbo pas. part. + complem.

(hadnt)

INT.: Yes No Question:

Had + suj + verbo pas. part. + complem.?

Rta.: Yes, suj. + had.

No, suj. + hadnt.

INT.: Wh- Question:

Wh- word + had + suj + verbo pas. part. +complem?

Rta. Completa (estructura afirmativa)

FUTURE SIMPLE:

*Predicciones (futuro incierto)

*Ofrecimientos

*Decisiones o intenciones inmediatas.

Aux. Will (para todas las personas) + verbo infinitivo

AFIRM.: Suj + will + verbo infinitivo + complem.

NEG.: Suj + will + not + verbo infinitivo + complem.

(wont)

INT.: Yes No Question:

Will + suj + verbo infinitivo + complem.?

Rta.: Yes, suj. + will.

No, suj. + wont.

INT.: Wh- Question:

Wh- word + will + suj + verbo infinitivo +complem?

Rta. Completa (estructura afirmativa)

FUTURE GOING TO:

*Predicciones basadas en hecho reales

*Acciones planificadas a corto o largo plazo

*Futuro inmediato

Aux. Am ( I )

Is (He-She-It) + going to + verbo infinitivo

Are (You-We-They)

AFIRM.: Suj + aux + going to + verbo infinitivo + complem.

NEG.: Suj + aux + not + going to + verbo infinitivo +compl.

INT.: Yes No Question:

Aux + suj + going to + verbo infinitivo + complem.?

Rta.: Yes, suj. + am-is-are

No, suj. + am not-isnt-arent

INT.: Wh- Question:

Wh- word + aux + suj + going to + verbo infinitivo +compl?

Rta. Completa (estructura afirmativa)

FUTURE CONTINUOUS:

*Describe acciones que estarn en progreso en un momento especfico en el futuro. La accin comenzar y continuar en ese momento en el futuro.AFIRM.: Suj + will + be + verbo -ing + complem.

NEG.: Suj + will + not + be + verbo -ing + complem.

(wont)

INT.: Yes No Question:

Will + suj + be + verbo -ing + complem.?

Rta.: Yes, suj. + will.

No, suj. + wont.

INT.: Wh- Question:

Wh- word + will + suj + be + verbo -ing +complem?

Rta. Completa (estructura afirmativa)

FUTURE PERFECT:

*Describe acciones que se habrn completado antes de un momento especfico en el futuro.

AFIRM.: Suj + will + have + verbo pas. part. + complem.

NEG.: Suj + will + not + have + verbo pas. part. + compl.

(wont)

INT.: Yes No Question:

Will + suj + have + verbo pas. part. + complem.?

Rta.: Yes, suj. + will.

No, suj. + wont.

INT.: Wh- Question:

Wh- word + will + suj + have + verbo pas. part +complem?

Rta. Completa (estructura afirmativa)

ZERO CONDITIONAL:

*Describe situaciones que son siempre verdad.

**If + Presente Simple / Presente Simple

E.g. If I eat too much, I get sick.

**Presente Simple If + Presente Simple.E.g. I get sick if I eat too much.

FIRST CONDITIONAL:

*Describe situaciones posibles (causa consecuencia)

**If + Presente Simple / Will + verbo infinitivo

E.g. If it rains, we will not go to the cinema.

**Will + verbo infinitivo / If + Presente Simple

E.g. They wont pass the exam if they dont study

SECOND CONDITIONAL: *Describe situaciones irreales o imaginaries.

**If + Pasado Simple / Would + verbo infinitivo

E.g. If I were you, I wouldnt waste my money.

(But Im not you)

**Would + verbo infinitivo / If + Pasado Simple

E.g. They would be more comfortable if they lived in a bigger house. (But they live in a small house)THIRD CONDITIONAL: *Describe situaciones imposibles, que no pueden cambiarse.**If + Pasado Perfecto / Would + have + verbo pas.part

E.g. If I had known you were going to the party, I would have gone with you.

** Would + have + verbo pas.part / If + Pasado PerfectoE.g. I would have gone with you if I had known you were going to the party (But I didnt know and I didnt goto the party)MIXED CONDITIONALS: (combina el 2 y el 3 condic.)**If Pasado Simple / would have + verbo pas.partE.g. If I had a great voice, Id have become a rock star.

*Describe el efecto de una situacin imaginaria presente, en el pasado.

**If Pasado Perfecto / would + verbo infinitivoE.g. If you had paid off your other debts, I would lend you the money. *Describe las consecuencias presentes de una situacin imaginaria pasada.PASSIVE VOICE: Se usa cuando nos interesa ms el Objeto que en el Sujejo que realiza la accin.

*El Objeto de la Activa se convierte en Sujeto de la Pasiva

*En Voz Pasiva quien realiza la accin (Complem Agente) se introduce con by, pero slo cuando el Agente es nico y /o necesario para la idea expresada.

*El verbo To Be va en el tiempo de la Activa + el Verbo Principal de la Activa siempre en Pasado Participio.

am-is-are

was-were

Regular: d/ed

have/has been + verbo pas. participio

will be

Irreg:3colum.

EXAMPLES:

Affirmative

Active: Shakespeare wrote Hamlet

Passive: Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.

Negative

Active: They dont grow coffee in England.

Passive: Coffee isnt grown in England.

Interrogative

*Yes-No Questions: Was Hamlet written by Shakespeare? Yes, it was.

*How was the window broken? The window was broken playing ball.

REPORTED SPEECH:

*Se usa para reportar o contar algo que fue dicho previamente por otra persona.

*La regla para formarlo es que el verbo se mueve un tiempo hacia atrs.

CAMBIOS EN TIEMPOS DE VERBOS

Direct Speech

Reported Speech

*Presente Simple................*Pasado Simple

E.g.I am tired

She said she was tired.

E.g.I love you

He told he loved me.

*Pasado Simple...................*Pasado Perfecto

E.g. We met yesterday

He said they had met the day before.*Presente Continuado..........*Pasado Continuado

E.g. Im finishing the book this day.

She said she was finishing the book that day

*Presente Perfecto...............*Pasado Perfecto

E.g.We have met before She said they had met before

*Will..*Would

E.g. Ill fix it for you He said he would fix it for me*Can.*Could

E.g.I can swim She said she could swim.

VERBOS SAY AND TELL

*Para reportar lo antes dicho se utilizan verbos como say y tell, SIEMPRE EN PASADO.

*Say + (that) = She said (that) they were happy together.

*Tell + persona + (that)= He told me (that) he loved Mary.

CAMBIOS EN EXPRESIONES

*Now..then

*Tonight.that night

*Yesterdaythe day before / the previous day

*This..that

*Here.there

*Next year.the following year / the year after.

*Tomorrowthe day after

STATEMENTS: Hay cambios en: pronombres adjetivos posesivos pronombres objetivos etc.