Economides, M.J. and Nolte, K.G. - Reservoir Stimulation (3rd Edition)

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2010 COPYRIGHT MERCADO NEGRO, LAS PLAYITAS. MARACAIBO-EDO. ZULIA, VENEZUELA.PARA COMPRAR AL DETAL O AL MAYOR, ESTE Y OTROS PRODUCTOS, FAVOR PREGUNTAR POR EL GAJIRO BLANCO, EN EL MERCADO LAS PLAYITAS. ADVERTENCIA: "EL DERECHO DE AUTOR NO ES UNA FORMA DE PROPIEDAD SINO UN DERECHO CULTURAL. EXIGE TU DERECHO"

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MICHAEL J. ECONOMIDES is Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Houston. Until the summer of 1998, he was the Samuel R. Noble Professor of Petroleum Engineering at Texas A & M University and served as Chief Scientist of the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI).Prior to joining the faculty at Texas A & M University, Professor Economides was the Director of the Institute of Drilling and Production at the Institute of Drilling and Production at the Leoben Mining Institute in Austria (1989-1993). From 1984 to 1989, he worked in a variety of senior positions with the Schlumberger companies, including Europe Region Reservoir Engineering and Stimulation Manager and Senior Staff Engineer, North America. Publications include authoring or coauthoring of 7 textbooks and more that 150 journal papers and articles ranges of industrial consulting, including major retainers by national oil companies at the country level and by Fortune 500 companies. He is the founder and a major shareholder in OTEK (Australia), a petroleum service and consulting firm with offices in five Australian cities. In addition to his technical interests, he has written extensively in wide circulation media on a broad range of topics associated with energy and geopolitical issues.

KENNETH G. NOLTE has held various senior technical and marketing positions with Schlumberger since 1986. From 1984 to 1986, he was with Nolte-Smith, Inc. (now NSI Technologies, Inc.). Prior to 1984, Dr. Nolte was a research associate with Amoco Production Company, where he worked for 16 years in the areas of offshore/arctic technology and hydraulic fracturing. Dr. Nolte holds a BS degree from the University of Illinois and received and MS and PhD from Brown University. He has authored numerous journal publications and has authored numerous journal publications and has various patents relating to material behavior, drilling, offshore technology and fracturing. Dr. Nolte was 1986-1987 SPE Distinguished Lecturer and received the Lester C. Uren Award in 1992.

2010 COPYRIGHT MERCADO NEGRO, LAS PLAYITAS. MARACAIBO-EDO. ZULIA, VENEZUELA.PARA COMPRAR AL DETAL O AL MAYOR, ESTE Y OTROS PRODUCTOS, FAVOR PREGUNTAR POR EL GAJIRO BLANCO, EN EL MERCADO LAS PLAYITAS. ADVERTENCIA: "EL DERECHO DE AUTOR NO ES UNA FORMA DE PROPIEDAD SINO UN DERECHO CULTURAL. EXIGE TU DERECHO"

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2010 COPYRIGHT MERCADO NEGRO, LAS PLAYITAS. MARACAIBO-EDO. ZULIA, VENEZUELA.PARA COMPRAR AL DETAL O AL MAYOR, ESTE Y OTROS PRODUCTOS, FAVOR PREGUNTAR POR EL GAJIRO BLANCO, EN EL MERCADO LAS PLAYITAS. ADVERTENCIA: "EL DERECHO DE AUTOR NO ES UNA FORMA DE PROPIEDAD SINO UN DERECHO CULTURAL. EXIGE TU DERECHO"

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Reservoir StimulationContents

Preface: Hydraulic Fracturing, A Technology for All TimeAhmed S. Abou-Sayed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-1

Chapter 1 Reservoir Stimulation in Petroleum ProductionMichael J. Economides and Curtis Boney 1-1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1.1. Petroleum production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1.2. Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2. Inow performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2.1. IPR for steady state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2.2. IPR for pseudosteady state. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2.3. IPR for transient (or innite-acting) ow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2.4. Horizontal well production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2.5. Permeability anisotropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3. Alterations in the near-wellbore zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3.1. Skin analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3.2. Components of the skin effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3.3. Skin effect caused by partial completion and slant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3.4. Perforation skin effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3.5. Hydraulic fracturing in production engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4. Tubing performance and NODAL* analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5. Decision process for well stimulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5.1. Stimulation economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5.2. Physical limits to stimulation treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6. Reservoir engineering considerations for optimal production enhancement strategies . . . . . . . 1-6.1. Geometry of the well drainage volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6.2. Well drainage volume characterizations and production optimization strategies . . . . 1-7. Stimulation execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7.1. Matrix stimulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7.2. Hydraulic fracturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1-1 1-3 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-5 1-6 1-10 1-11 1-11 1-12 1-12 1-13 1-16 1-18 1-20 1-21 1-22 1-22 1-23 1-24 1-28 1-28 1-18

Chapter 2 Formation Characterization: Well and Reservoir TestingChristine A. Ehlig-Economides and Michael J. Economides 2-1. Evolution of a technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1.1. Horner semilogarithmic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1.2. Log-log plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2. Pressure derivative in well test diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3. Parameter estimation from pressure transient data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3.1. Radial ow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3.2. Linear ow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-7 2-7 2-9

Reservoir Stimulation

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2-4. 2-5. 2-6.

2-7. 2-8.

2-3.3. Spherical ow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3.4. Dual porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3.5. Wellbore storage and pseudosteady state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test interpretation methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis with measurement of layer rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layered reservoir testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6.1. Selective inow performance analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6.2. Analysis of multilayer transient test data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing multilateral and multibranch wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Permeability determination from a fracture injection test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8.1. Pressure decline analysis with the Carter leakoff model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8.2. Filter-cake plus reservoir pressure drop leakoff model (according to Mayerhofer et al., 1993). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-10 2-11 2-11 2-12 2-14 2-15 2-15 2-16 2-16 2-17 2-17 2-21

Chapter 3 Formation Characterization: Rock MechanicsM. C. Thiercelin and J.-C. Roegiers 3-1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sidebar 3A. Mechanics of hydraulic fracturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2. Basic concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2.1. Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2.2. Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sidebar 3B. Mohr circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3. Rock behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3.1. Linear elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sidebar 3C. Elastic constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3.2. Inuence of pore pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3.3. Fracture mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3.4. Nonelastic deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3.5. Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4. Rock mechanical property measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4.1. Importance of rock properties in stimulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4.2. Laboratory testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4.3. Stress-strain curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4.4. Elastic parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4.5. Rock strength, yield criterion and failure envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....